The fuel pin design is similar to that of a pressurized water reactor. Supercritical water oxidation scwo, sometimes referred to as hydrothermal oxidation hto, is a highefficiency, thermal oxidation process capable of treating a wide variety of hazardous and non. Safety analysis is one of the most important tasks for scwr design. Optimized core design of a supercritical carbon dioxide. Motivated by the goals of the generationiv international. Supercritical watercooled reactors scwrs are among the most promising. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point. A 2014 book saw reactor conceptual design of a thermal spectrum reactor super lwr and a fast reactor super. Branch, and 3 a conceptual design of a supercritical pressure power re actor prepared by. Heat is produced by nuclear fission in the reactor core, and this causes the cooling water to boil, producing. One of these proposed solutions was the design of the supercritical water cooled reactor. Preconceptual designs of three variants of pressure vessel supercritical reactors.
One visual software named hpower was developed to calculate. Core design of a high breeding fast reactor cooled by supercritical pressure light water. Supercritical water reactor fuel qualification test. Supercritical water reactor scwr inl digital library. Besides, supercritical co 2 cycle can solve many nuclear power system issues, such as metalwater reaction in the sodium cooled fast reactor, the harmful effects for material under. Iaeacn1645s06 1 supercritical watercooled reactor scwr development through gif collaboration t. The reactor core may have a thermal or a fastneutron spectrum, depending on the core design. Supercritical watercooled reactor scwr is a generationiv nuclear reactor design that operates on a direct energy conversion cycle above the thermodynamic critical point of water 374 0c and 22. A novel reactor, combining the advantages of the modar reactor, horizontal stirred reactor, dynamic gas seal wall reactor, and cool wall reactor, was designed and manufactured to overcome the problems. Feasibility study of supercritical light water cooled reactors for. Chal joined intellectual ventures from terrapower, an intellectual ventures spinout promoting nextgeneration nuclear reactor design. The supercritical water reactor may be operated as a thermal reactor or as a fastneutron reactor, depending on the core design. Supercritical water cooled candu reactor concept 3.
This publication is the outcome of an iaea coordinated research project crp on understanding and prediction of thermohydraulic phenomena relevant to supercritical water cooled reactors scwrs. The scwr system is primarily designed for efficient electricity production, with the capability for actinide management depending on the core design. This concept draws its inspiration from the canadian deuterium candu. Supercritical watercooled reactor scwr development. The canadian supercritical reactor see below uses heavy water instead of light water. Core design of a high breeding fast reactor cooled by. If the file has been modified from its original state, some details such as the timestamp may not fully reflect those of the original file. Materials and water chemistry for supercritical water.
A formative reactor concept model has been developed. Under these conditions water becomes a fluid with unique properties that can be used to advantage in the destruction of hazardous wastes such as pcbs. This article presents an innovative, anticorrosive vertical pipeinpipe configuration reactor design, as detailed in fig. The hprmicro reactor comes standard with an inconel 718 ss reactor vessel, 10, 25, 50 ml in volume, for operation up to 10,000 psi 689 bar 68. Development project of supercriticalwater cooled power.
A boiling water reactor bwr uses demineralized water as a coolant and neutron moderator. Materials selection for the canadian supercritical watercooled. A high breeding fast reactor core concept, cooled by supercritical pressure light water has been developed with fullycoupled neutronics and thermalhydraulics core calculations, which takes into account the influence of core pressure loss to the core neutronics characteristics. Supercritical water reactor cycle for medium power. This paper presents the results of a rigorous modelling exercise to design a solar supercritical water gasification scwg reactor. Needless to say, extensive test programs are currently underway to. The application of supercritical co2 in nuclear engineering. Supercritical water cooled reactor energy education. New design of supercritical water oxidation reactor for. The high coolant temperature as it leaves the reactor core gives the scwr the potential for high thermal efficiency 45%. This incredibly precise, hightech application involved a using a supercritical water stream to process a biomassmethanol slurry. The supercritical watercooled reactor scwr is 1 of 6 reactor systems selected by the generation iv gen iv international forum gif as the most promising next generation nuclear power. Supercritical water oxidation scwo is a process that occurs in water at temperatures and pressures above a mixtures thermodynamic critical point.
This equation states that the time change of the neutron population is equal to the excess of neutron production by fission minus neutron loss by absorption in one mean generation time with delayed neutrons ld. The supercritical water cooled reactor scwr is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the generation iv program. Accident analysis on supercritical watercooled reactor. Generation iv supercritical watercooled nuclear reactors. The publication illustrates the state of the art in scwr research and development. This concept draws its inspiration from the canadian deuterium candu reactor and uses pressure tubes for each channel and a lowpressure heavy water moderator. Scwr supercritical water reactor is one of the promising generation iv nuclear systems, which has higher thermal power efficiency than current pressurized water reactor. The light water reactor is a type of thermal neutron reactor that utilizes normal water as opposed to heavy water, a form of water that contains a larger amount of the hydrogen isotope. Preliminary development of thermal power calculation code. As such, more competitive designs with higher thermal efficiencies, which will be. Subcriticalsupercritical water systems supercritical fluid. Supercritical water reactor scwr concept of the scwr.
Ansys engineering simulation for reactor design including cfd for chemical reactor design, structural and thermal analysis and instrumentation and control software used for design and analysis of chemical reactors enable reaction engineers to answer whatif questions as they design and enhance reactors performance, energy usage, reactor yield. It is the second most common type of electricitygenerating nuclear reactor after the pressurized water reactor pwr, which is also a type of light water nuclear reactor. There is considerable interest in both developing and developed countries in the design of innovative water cooled reactors wcrs and, owing to the higher thermal efficiency and significant. The overall objective of the supercritical water reactor fuel qualification test scwrfqt project is to design, analyse and license a small scale fuel assembly test facility with supercritical water in the research reactor lvr15. The electric power range of interest is 530 mwe with a design point of 20 mwe.
The fuel pin design is similar to that of a pressurized water reactor pwr, but with higher fill pressure and longer fission gas plenum. Supercritical watercooled reactor scwr is the only watercooled reactor among six generation iv reactor concepts. The vessel closure is of the handtight type where no wrenches are needed to make the closure. A computational fluid dynamic cfd model of a transpiring wall reactor for supercritical water oxidation has been implemented and solved using the commercial software fluent 6. Canada is developing a supercritical watercooled reactor scwr as part of the generation iv program. The supercritical water reactor scwr is a concept generation iv reactor, mostly designed as. Supercritical water oxidation scwo consists of the homogeneous oxidation above the critical point of water 374. Gifiv program, supercritical water reactor scwr, prospects for nuclear power. A typical thermal spectrum scwr with passive safety system during design basis accident dba and beyond design basis accident bdba is performed. Supercritical water oxidation scwo, sometimes referred to as hydrothermal oxidation hto, is a highefficiency, thermal oxidation process capable of treating a wide variety of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Design and fabrication of our patented transpiringwall scwo reactor twr benchscale systems and pilot plants incorporating the transpiringwall reactor. Conceptual design of a supercritical watercooled reactor.
A conceptual design of a directcycle supercritical watercooled reactor with an internal recirculating flow is. Each fuel channel includes a pressure tube that is submerged in a heavy water moderator and contains a removable fuel assembly. An inclined plugflow reactor design for supercritical. Watercooled reactors operating at subcritical pressures 7 16 mpa have provided. Supercriticalwatercooled reactor scwr scwrs are high temperature, highpressure, lightwatercooled reactors that operate above the thermodynamic critical point of water 374c, 22. Supercritical water reactor reference design by westinghouse atomic. The supercritical water reactor scwr is a concept of generation iv reactor, that is operated. Supercriticalpressure light watercooled reactors scwr are the only water cooled reactor. This book is an essential text for researchers in the areas of supercritical water cooled reactor materials and chemistry, working in industry or academia. Design of supercritical watercooled nuclear reactor vver scp30 generation iv or scwr reactor according to the international classification is based on the following. This feature also makes the scwr a very attractive concept for. Scoping studies for a power conversion system based on a directcycle supercritical water reactor have been conducted. It is necessary to perform the thermal equilibrium and thermal power calculation for the conceptual design and further monitoring and calibration of the scwr. Supercritical water cooled reactor scwr is the only water cooled reactor among six generation iv reactor concepts.
The supercritical watercooled reactor scwr is one of the six reactor technologies. The combination of advanced water cooled reactor technology and advanced supercritical fossil technology is expected to result in a reactor concept that can be used to generate baseload electricity very economically and efficiently. The canadian supercritical water cooled nuclear reactor scwr is a 2540 mwth channeltype scwr concept that employs 336 fuel channels in the reactor core. The overall objective of the supercritical water reactor fuel qualification test scwrfqt project is to design, analyse and license a small scale fuel assembly test facility with supercritical water in the. A boiling water reactor bwr is a type of light water nuclear reactor used for the generation of electrical power. This equation states that the time change of the neutron population is equal to the. A new design of double wall reactor has been developed in which scwo reaction take place inside an inner tube alumina or titanium, micro porous. Modelling of a solarpowered supercritical water biomass. Pdf generation iv supercritical watercooled nuclear reactors. This file contains additional information such as exif metadata which may have been added by the digital camera, scanner, or software program used to create or digitize it. The supercritical watercooled reactor scwr is a concept for an advanced reactor that will operate at high pressure 25mpa and high temperature 500c average core exit. Supercritical watercooled reactor scwr development through.
Canadas national program on generation iv energy technologies. Such fluids can diffuse through solids like a gas and dissolve materials like a liquid. Iv supercritical watercooled nuclear reactor conceptual design. The high performance light water reactor is a nuclear reactor concept of the 4th generation which is cooled and moderated with supercritical water. The concept of the supercritical water reactor may be based on classical pressure vessel as in commercial pwrs or on pressure tubes as in candu reactors. The corrosion of reactor and salt precipitation are two critical obstacles that inhibiting the development of supercritical water oxidation scwo in to a viable industrial process. It will also give newcomers to the field a survey of all of the available literature and a clear understanding of how these studies relate to the design of the scwr concept. The design of the scwr follows a combination of the basic principles of boiling water reactors and supercritical coal plants, both of which have been used extensively and would help to reduce experimental hurdles experienced with new projects.
An inclined plugflow reactor design for supercritical water. The scwo reaction takes place at elevated temperatures and pressures above the critical point of water pc 220. Fuel assembly concept of the canadian supercritical water. Subcriticalsupercritical water systems supercritical. The pressurevessel design of supercritical water reactors is. The supercritical watercooled reactor scwr is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the generation iv program. Safety analysis of a supercritical water cooled reactor. Materials and water chemistry for supercritical watercooled reactors is unique in that it brings together materials and water chemistry, their interrelationship, the historical perspective and their application to.
Ansys engineering simulation for reactor design including cfd for chemical reactor design, structural and thermal analysis and instrumentation and control software used for design and analysis of. Understanding and prediction of thermohydraulic phenomena. The reactor core design concept is illustrated in fig. Stability analysis of supercritical water cooled reactors.
Preliminary development of thermal power calculation code h. Supercritical water reactor cycle for medium power applications. The overall design objective is to develop a system that has minimized physical size and performs. The test section is a 4rod fuel assembly located inside an active channel placed in the research reactor. A novel reactor, combining the advantages of the modar reactor, horizontal stirred reactor, dynamic gas seal wall reactor, and cool wall reactor, was designed and manufactured to overcome the problems encountered in continuous supercritical water oxidation of real waste, especially in semisolid state. Modelling of a solarpowered supercritical water biomass gasifier. The supercritical water reactor scwr is a concept generation iv reactor, mostly designed as light water reactor lwr that operates at supercritical pressure i. Balance of plant design, control and startup brei 50 stability analysis anl 53 containment and safety systems design westinghouse 160 materials survey ornl 50 corrosion testing of candidate materials mit 50 total 438 executive summary supercritical water cooled reactors scwrs are essentially light water reactors lwrs. Scwr reactors are very similar to light water reactors, see fig. The canadian scwr core concept, safety systems, and the plant layout are documented in the previous publications 46. Spurred by the renewed interest in nuclear power, gascooled fast reactors gfrs have received increasing attention in the past decade. Overview of supercritical water oxidation technology.
Motivated by the goals of the generationiv international forum gif, a gfr cooled by supercritical carbon dioxide sco2, fueled with light water reactor spent fuel transuranics, and directly coupled with a brayton cycle is under investigation as part of a. Science has since shown that there are fifteen 15 states of matter, including super critical. This model incorporates a solar receiverreactor operating at conditions of 28 mpa and 873 973 k. Startup thermal analysis of a supercriticalpressure light water. In conjunction with a us department of energy grant to the iowa state university, supercritical fluid technologies developed and built a custom supercritical bio reactor designed to produce biofuels. Scwrs are high temperature, highpressure, lightwatercooled reactors that operate. The simplest equation governing the neutron kinetics of the system with delayed neutrons is the point kinetics equation. Materials and water chemistry for supercritical watercooled. The term critical in this context refers to the critical point of water, and must not be confused with the concept of criticality of the nuclear reactor. There is considerable interest in both developing and developed countries in the design of innovative water cooled reactors wcrs and, owing to the higher thermal efficiency and significant system simplifications, supercritical water cooled reactors swcrs. Rapid and efficient mixing between the supercritical water and waste stream thus maximizing the rate of oxidation in the central region of the reactor, away from the reactor walls. Besides, supercritical co 2 cycle can solve many nuclear power system issues, such as metal water reaction in the sodium cooled fast reactor, the harmful effects for material under excessive temperature and difficulties for high power compressor manufacturing in the helium cooled reactor. Supercritical water reactor fuel qualification test scwr.1134 1400 1362 1218 784 193 522 538 792 1232 407 1089 171 636 1377 231 1593 497 285 923 1490 708 528 13 501 1590 1440 661 1025 1498 907 5 403 217 1177